Mental music | Percussionists jam without their hands

Imagem em the-scientist.com
"With electrode-studded headbands strapped to their scalps, three percussionists banged out a cacophony of sound and rhythm at a performance/neuroscience experiment entitled, "Trio for percussion and brain waves" last Monday (Mar 24) in New York City. But this performance was a first for the three musicians involved: none of them even touched their instruments.

As a rapt audience watched, sounds issued from three laptops connected to the drummers by Bluetooth technology. The musicians' brainwaves traveled through the air, triggering tones from the computers before leaping to life on the 12-foot-high screen hanging behind them.

The performance was part of an experiment designed by David Sulzer, Columbia University neuroscientist. It demonstrated Sulzer's idea that thinking about an action could stimulate the brain in much the same way as actually carrying it out.

"It's the first time we've shown this [experiment] in public," said Sulzer, who's also known as Dave Soldier the prolific composer who has published 13 studio albums since 1988. When the music was playing, Sulzer sat alone, his eyes closed and his body stilled by intense concentration. Sulzer recently released albums of music played by elephant orchestras and demonstrated his neuron-induced music at the Brooklyn Philharmonic.

Another portion of Sulzer's public experiment, which was part of "BRAINWAVE: The NeuroScience of the Groove" held at the City University of New York, was to have the musicians play their drums normally while the real-time peaks and valleys of their brain activity flashed on the screen behind them.

Each time the musicians beat their instruments, a series of chemical reactions took place in their brains: sodium ions flooded into their neurons while potassium ions coursed out, creating about -70mV of voltage and sharp spikes in their brainwave readouts, just like when they were producing music with their thoughts alone. Occasionally, though, the waves waned into almost a straight line; an interruption in the transmission process. "It could probably be caused by sweat," said Sulzer.

The musicians' brainwaves also spiked when they sat on their hands to keep them still while thinking about music. Although some minor movements such as raising an eyebrow could also have triggered spikes, Sulzer and his Columbia colleague, John Krakauer, believed that further experiments would help them approach the truth.

"I think for the next step, we'll try to keep their hands completely still instead of just letting them sit on their hands, though there will probably still be spikes," said Krakauer, co-director of the Motor Performance Laboratory at Columbia University.

When one of the three musicians started a mental music piece and the other two tried to accompany it, the brainwaves of the three synced up intermittently. "That was because they constantly needed to catch up with each other," said Sulzer.

For Barry Olsen and Valerie Dee Naranjo, two of the participating percussionists, playing their music while wearing electrodes was a unique experience." (By Jessie Jiang | the-scientist.com | 28th March 2008)


Síndrome de Williams | Talento musical

Imagem: Book cover: "The Strangest Song: One Father's Quest to Help His Daughter Find Her Voice"| Credit: Prometheus Books, 2006

"The high degree of interindividual variability in musical abilities and proclivities is not well understood. Indeed, the genetic, environmental, developmental, and neurocognitive substrates of musicality (itself a concept difficult to define operationally) remain quite obscure. That said, such differences are easily appreciated, in both senses of the word. On the other hand, the often obvious differences in cognitive abilities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders frequently have pernicious consequences for affected individuals and their families. In The strangest song: one father’s quest to help his daughter find her voice, Teri Sforza tells a story that melds different worlds of individual experience and social response — that of an extraordinarily musically talented, intellectually impaired woman with Williams syndrome (WS).
WS, a multisystem disorder occurring in about 1 in 7,500 live births, arises from hemizygous deletion of a 1.55-Mb region containing some 28 genes at chromosome 7q11.23. Physical manifestations include dysmorphic (“elfin”) facial features, supravalvular aortic stenosis and other connective tissue abnormalities, and growth retardation. Characteristic personality traits include hypersociability and heightened empathy (generally described as “delightful”), along with nonsocial anxieties. Developmental delay and cognitive impairment are the norm, with low IQ scores and severe deficits in spatial and arithmetic cognition and in conceptual reasoning. However, WS appears to be associated with relative preservation of abilities in language, face processing, sociability, and music.
This mix of cognitive abilities and disabilities has proven irresistible as a human model for examining the links among genes, neurodevelopment, cognition, and behavior. Defining the genetic substrates of WS-associated neurodevelopmental abnormalities has not been easy, in part because of the stereotypical nature of the responsible deletion. Study of atypical deletions as well as mouse models has, however, implicated several genes in various aspects of the neurocognitive and craniofacial phenotype, including GTF2IRD1 (a TFII-I transcription factor), CYLN2 (cytoplasmic linker protein 2), LIMK1 (LIM kinase 1), and FZD9 (frizzled 9). The fragmented nature of the WS cognitive phenotype — in particular, the lack of apparent difficulties with language despite evident severe impairment in other cognitive domains — has also provided considerable experimental grist for the mill of neuropsychological theory.
But WS is something experienced by individuals and those who care for and about them. To echo neurologist Oliver Sacks, WS is a “what” that happens to a “who.” And whatever the genetic substrates, the social environment is critical to how WS and other developmental disorders are experienced. These points are illuminated in a compelling way in The strangest song, an account of Gloria Lenhoff and her parents, written by Sforza with Gloria’s parents. Born before the syndrome was first described, Gloria had what was, in retrospect, a typically difficult childhood for someone with WS. Her likely future was one defined in large part by limitation of possibility and hope. However, Gloria’s parents’ recognition of, and delight in, her musical affinity and gifts, along with their single-minded pursuit of ways to develop and provide performing outlets for her musical talents, has led to what clearly seems to be a remarkably fulfilling life. Despite her varied intellectual limitations, Gloria turned into an accomplished lyric soprano (and accordionist) with a vast repertoire of songs in a profusion of languages who has enriched a broad public and herself with her gifts.
Of note, Gloria’s father’s activism was itself instrumental in spurring recognition and study of the WS musical phenotype. Compared with normal individuals, those with WS tend to exhibit more engagement with music — more emotion while listening to music, more time spent on musical activities, and onset of interest in music at a younger age. They also have a greater incidence of auditory anomalies, including hyperacusis, odynacusis, phonophobia, and auditory fascinations. Using functional MRI imaging, Levitin et al. have described possible neural correlates of this unusual auditory and musical sensitivity (1). Of course, as in the population at large, the actual musical abilities of individuals with WS (like their other cognitive abilities) vary widely. However, music appears to provide a uniquely important avenue for cognitive development and emotional fulfillment for many people with WS. The ongoing struggle by Gloria’s father and others to provide opportunities for such development and fulfillment drives much of the narrative of this book.
Sforza, neither professional scientist nor professional musician, has written an entertaining book for a general audience. Those looking for a state-of-the-art review of the science of WS will not find it here. Indeed, scientists will wince at the casual misinformation (e.g., Watson and Crick did not discover DNA). Similarly, musicians will stumble over occasional lapses in tone. But these are minor quibbles. Sforza beautifully limns the key role played by the social environment in the individual experience of genetic developmental disability, careful attention to which has the potential for helping people transcend biological and social categories in their own unique ways. " (The strangest song: One father’s quest to help his daughter find her voice | Reviewed by Christopher L. Karp)
1. Levitin D.J., et al. Neural correlates of auditory perception in Williams syndrome: an fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2003;18:74–82.. [PubMed]
Artigos | Textos relacionados:

“Self Comes to Mind” junta António Damásio e Yo-Yo Ma

Imagem: Hiroyuki Ito for The New York Times

Legenda: " Yo-Yo Ma playing cello to a composition by Bruce Adolphe, with imagery of brain activity at the American Museum of Natural History on Sunday night. " (The New York Times | Evolution of Human Consciousness, With Words, Music and Brain Imagery | By ANTHONY TOMMASINI)
"O compositor norte-americano Bruce Adolphe convidou o neurocientista português António Damásio e o violoncelista de origem chinesa Yo-Yo Ma para participarem na produção de uma peça musical multimédia sobre a evolução da consciência humana.

"Self Comes to Mind" estreou domingo, no Museu Americano de História Natural, em Nova Iorque, perante 900 espectadores, que assistiram à peça musical após um debate sobre a evolução do cérebro humano.

A execução da peça por Yo-Yo Ma e dois percussionistas foi acompanhada pela exibição de um vídeo com imagens digitalizadas do cérebro humano sobrepostas por pequenos textos poéticos escritos e lidos por António Damásio." (CiênciaHoje | 2009-05-08)
Related stories:
  • Mental music [28th March 2008]
  • Music and the mind [21st November 2006]
  • Para maior informação:
    "The anatomy of creativity | A collaboration between a composer and his neuroscientist muse probes one of life's deepest questions" [The Scientist | Published 8th May 2009 06:04 PM GMT]


    Colectânea de textos sobre música e musicoterapia vs. pessoas cegas ou portadoras de deficiência visual

    A colectânea de textos que se apresenta incide sobre: a relação, possibilidades, métodos de interacção e benefícios da música e da musicoterapia na vida de pessoas cegas ou portadoras de deficiência visual. Inicialmente procedeu-se à recolha, selecção e compilação, na Internet, de textos de vários autores e foram pesquisados os termos: cegos, música, musicoterapia.

    Nota 1 – Após uma pesquisa inicial seguiram-se outros caminhos pelo que, não é possível, neste momento, enumerar todos os autores dos artigos e textos seleccionados assim como os endereços WWW onde estão alojados (essa tarefa será efectuada posteriormente e apresentada aqui).

    Nota 2 – Na impossibilidade de efectuar um resumo das mais de 200 páginas, deixo algumas palavras-chave dos referidos documentos:
    Senabraille, Sistema Braille, pratica educacional com crianças surdo cegas, cegueira congénita, pessoas com deficiência visual, desenvolvimento de conceitos e habilidades de comunicação em crianças com deficiência visual, dificuldades de aprendizagem, diagnóstico e prognóstico de surdez e cegueira, Educação Musical Inclusiva, Musicoterapia cegos, formação de conceitos, imagem corporal e sexualidade de adolescentes com cegueira, leitura musical, Musicografia, modos de intenção com jovens deficientes visuais, músicos cegos, processo de inclusão escolar de crianças com cegueira, identidade visual de uma associação de deficientes visuais etc.
    Nota 3 [Last but not least] – Esta pesquisa é dedicada à Beth na esperança que o material lhe possa ser útil no desenvolvimento do seu trabalho.


    ' Music Saves Lives'

    Music is the key to Anais Martinez’s education.

    Imagem: Ray Charles

    "Anais, who is blind, relies on her ears to channel notes that make her fingers flutter on piano keys. The 11-year-old’s affinity for the piano stirred community leaders in March 2008, when she performed for the Northeast Richland Lions Club in North Richland Hills, Texas.

    So the club, which helps youngsters with sight issues, has worked to keep music central to the fifth-grader’s academic and social learning.

    “That’s what the Lions are all about – trying to serve our community,” says Richard Davis, secretary of the club.

    Anais has been blind since birth and is also diagnosed with pervasive development disorder in the autism spectrum, explained Debbie Dacus, board-certified music therapist in Birdville Independent School District in Tarrant County, Texas. The American Music Therapy Association describes music therapists as healthcare professionals who use music to “address physical, emotional and cognitive needs.”

    “We are trained to deal with students who have learning differences or have physical differences that do not allow them to learn from traditional methods,” Dacus says.

    The Lions gave Anais a piano that they repaired. They also paid for private music therapy sessions to complement the sessions she gets at Snow Heights Elementary in North Richland Hills, Texas. When the Lions learned recently that family car woes were keeping Anais from private sessions with Dacus, they stepped up to help again.

    The Lions bought $750 worth of auto parts that were used by the auto technology department of the Birdville school district and a local mechanic to fix the car.

    “They really have been extraordinary,” says Dacus, adding that the private music therapy lessons will resume soon. “They have really gone out of their way to help this family.”

    Meanwhile, Anais is improving her music talent and academic skills at Snow Heights.

    Anais and Dacus use music to build speech sounds. The music therapy helps with social, conversational and fine motor skills, which involve small muscle movements.

    Anais performed at a Christmas concert and the annual dinner hosted by the Birdville school district for families with autistic students, Dacus says. She is playing music of increased difficulty, including Bach, Beethoven, and Ivanovici.

    Dacus says that Anais, of her own volition, plays a five-note scale before starting her performances.

    “She went on a field trip to hear the opera and ever since then, everything she sings is in operatic style,” Dacus says.

    Future goals include incorporating voice lessons and helping prep Anais for middle school, where she can join choir. She continues to work on reading and writing in Braille under the instruction of Kay Boland, who teaches visually impaired children at Snow Heights.

    Boland and Dacus are impressed with by Anais’ talent and academic growth.

    “It’s our responsibility to make sure this gift is nurtured,” Dacus says."


    'Music Therapy in the Treatment of Social Isolation in Visually Impaired Children'

    Music Therapy in the Treatment of Social Isolation in Visually Impaired Children

    "Music therapy is an evolving discipline integrating psychotherapy with the use of music. The term therapy usually brings to mind a verbal model; early forms of therapy were called the "talking cure." A verbal model, however, is not appropriate foreveryone. Many people of all ages, and especially young children whose language skills are not yet formed, respond better to therapies that do not depend on words.

    Music reaches the child beneath the level of words, providing a channel of communi­cation close to the child's own experience.

    Although music therapists are musicians, they are also trained to formulate goals that use music to address various needs. For example, specific musical activities can give children practice in socializing and interacting with each other and in using lan­guage or developing certain motor skills. Music therapists work in conjunction with other therapists and teachers to form a treatment plan tailored to a child's specific needs that uses music as a resource to aid a child's rehabilitation and development.

    Music can be a potent means of communication for helping a child whose social skills may be deficient to form relationships with others. Many education settings now use music therapy to help children develop these skills, and in these settings music therapy has become a standard part of a child's individualized education plan. Because children who are visually impaired face special challenges in their relationships with their peers, music therapy merits consideration by teachers who work with these children. [...]" (Journal Article Excerpt| CHARLES GOURGEY)

    Benefícios da Musicoterapia | Crianças surdas e cegas

    'playing and singing without seeing' |Music therapy at Art for All Camp August 2004

    "Music is an exceptional tool for helping people because of its power to reach everyone. Like nothing else, music creates multiple stimuli, allowing many different people to experience its effects regardless of their disability. Music can touch everyone. While music is usually thought of as an auditory stimulus, or a series of pitches that people can hear, it also creates tactile stimulation. When a large cymbal is struck with a mallet the vibrations can be felt by touching the cymbal. When the loud booming bass on a stereo is heard it is also possible to experience the power of the vibrations in the body. Music does not need to be heard to be beneficial. Because of the universality of music, music therapy becomes an aid that can help children with impairments in vision and hearing.

    Music therapy is the use of music, by a trained professional, to help patients make changes in their lives so as to adjust better to or overcome obstacles. There are two types of music therapy, adaptive and palliative. Adaptive music therapy is used to help people adapt to their handicaps. (Heller, 1987) Palliative music therapy is used to treat the symptoms of patients with physical, mental and emotional disturbances. (Heller, 1987) Both forms of music therapy help patients achieve their goals and have a better life.

    Using music to help deaf and blind children better function at basic skills is an example of adaptive music therapy. For the deaf and blind child basic skills are difficult to learn because they have impairments in two senses: sight and hearing. Because of their handicaps, deaf and blind children grow up in an isolated world. They are often unaware of their surroundings, cannot, communicate, and have difficulty in learning motor skills. In working with a deaf and blind child, the goals of a music therapist include: providing sensory stimulation, increasing self awareness, developing awareness of others, developing an awareness of the absence of sound, increasing the attention span, increasing the accuracy of motor skills, improving social interaction, providing a means of emotional expression and developing language and concepts (Cormier, 1982, p 11). Music therapy can help the deaf and blind child learn to adapt to a seeing and hearing world despite their handicaps.

    Music therapist worked with J, a nine-year-old boy with vision and hearing impairments, to improve his expressive language, improve social skills, and refine motor skills. Because J has sight and hearing impairments, music seemed a viable way to reach the client. The music therapists created several music activities that would give the client tactile stimulation to learn from. To increase the attention span and improve the social skills of the client, the music therapist and the client engage in a call-response rhythm game. Facing each other the therapist and client place their hands on each other’s shoulders while the therapist taps out simple rhythms. Encouraging the child to imitate the rhythm patterns on the therapist shoulders focuses the child’s attention and interacting with the therapist promotes social skills. This activity can be slightly altered to encourage vocalization and improve the client’s language skills. The therapist and the client place their hands on each other’s throat while the therapist sings. By allowing the client to feel the vibrations of the vocal chords, the client can learn how it feels to sings. This music activity develops an awareness of others in the client, improves social interaction between the client and other people, and increases the attention span of the client.

    Music therapy uses the many aspects of music to help people heal and adjust to their lives. The use of music therapy in deaf and blind children is very effective. Using vibrations, deaf and blind children can experience music without having to see or hear it. Music helps to provide deaf and blind children with tactile stimulation while it increases self awareness and awareness of others. It increases the attention span by requiring children to focus on an activity and improves social interaction by incorporating others in music activities. Because music is so versatile it can reach everyone. Music therapy used with deaf and blind children is an effective way to help them learn basic skills and adapt to their disabilities." (Melissa, November 23rd, 1998 Music Therapy 185 Dr. Solomon - Email: mw56@evansville.edu)

    • Heller, G.N. (1987). Ideas, initiatives, and implementations: Music therapy in America, 1789-1848. Journal of Music Therapy, 24, 35-36.
    • Cormier, Lucille. (1982). Music therapy for handicapped children: Deaf and blind. Washington, D.C.: National Association for Music Therapy.
    • Davis, William B., Kate E. Gfeller, Michael H. Thaut. (19??). An Introduction to Music Therapy Theory and Practice.

    'Olhos cegos fazem música'

    Fonte: EDUK

    " Houve um tempo em que os cegos não iam à escola, viviam como mendigos profissionais.Expulsos de casa quando ainda meninos e tidos como seres malditos, era comum serem alugados para pesados serviços de carga.

    Muitas vezes o cego era vendido a uma fábrica na qual, durante toda a vida, dormia no chão ou amontoava pilhas de esterco para os que negociavam com essa mercadoria. Não havia leis para os cegos. De e fato, eles não faziam parte da humanidade.

    Alguns ainda conseguiam ganhar pequeno sustento ingressando em companhias de palhaços. Vagavam de uma cidade para outra através da Europa, ridicularizando sua própria infelicidade e provocando o riso alheio.

    Nas feiras quase havia um bando de cegos de chapéu pontudo formando uma orquestra muda.O "maestro" agitava no ar um pedaço de cabo de vassoura diante de uma folha de música. Alguns estufavam as bochechas ou fingiam tocar, com pedaços de pau, violinos sem corda. Os transeuntes atiravam moedas quando o "maestro" batia nos componentes da orquestra com o pau da vassoura. Gargalhada geral. O espetáculo, embora cruel, era banal e ninguém se impressionava ou comovia com ele. Tudo isso acontecia porque ainda não se sabia como integrar os cegos na sociedade. Não havia lugar para eles, eis a dura verdade.

    Perto de Paris , na aldeia de Copyray , vivia um seleiro muito respeitado. Seu filho , Louis Braille , de 3 anos , gostava de acompanhar o trabalho do pai. Brincava com pedaços de couro enquanto mantinha a sovela , um instrumento perigoso, bem perto do rosto. Um dia, por descuido, ela resvalou na superfície dura e atingiu os olhos do menino, cegando-o para sempre.

    Ao completar 10 anos, Louis pediu aos pais que o matriculassem numa escola para cegos que havia em Paris. "Quem já ouviu dizer que uma criança cega vá à escola, você está doido? ",perguntou o pai.E,para tranquilizar o menino, disse orgulhosamente:"Não tenha receio, você não será mendigo.O vigário há de ajudá-lo a achar alguma colocação na igreja".

    Mas o pequeno não estava nada louco. Um advogado lhe garantira que em Paris havia uma escola para meninos cegos."Papai ,eu lhe suplico!Os cegos são as criaturas mais solitárias do mundo.Aqui casa eu posso distinguir um pássaro do outro pelo canto, mas jamais poderei aprender o que existe fora de meu ouvido e do meu tato.Só me libertarei com os livros!"

    Louis coseguiu.Em Paris, desenvolveu o sistema que leva o seu nome:seis pontos em relevo,dispostos em duas colunas paralelas,o que permite obter 63 combinações diferentes graças às quais as pessoas cegas podem ter acesso à leitura e à escrita em suas respectivas línguas.Tão perfeita é a "celula Braille" que ela se aplica a toda forma de conhecimento humano, em áreas tão diversas como a Matemática,

    a Física, a Quimica e a Música.

    Quando a parteira disse que o menino era cego, todos choravam menos D.Marinha, que prometeu fazer dele "um homem sem complexos e preparado para a vida".

    João Tomé foi educado como os outros meninos, cuidou de hortaliças, limpou quintal, apanhou lenha, varreu chão e carregou lata dágua. Aos 10 anos de idade aprendeu a tocar viola, passando a animar todos os bailes com sua música.

    Tornou-se profissional em violão, cavaquinho, flauta e bandolim. Participou de vários conjuntos e tocou em boates, igrejas e procissões. Numa festa de formatura, encantou-se pela voz de uma mulher que perguntou o nome da valsa que acabara de executar. Naquela noite apaixonou-se por Vera, casou com ela e criou família. Ficou famoso como João-Faz-Tudo, foi professor da Fundação Educacional e músico da Rádio Nacional. Morreu realizado,feliz.

    Dolores Tomé é filha de João Tomé. Estimulada pelo exemplo paterno, interessou-se por música. Disseminar essa bela e múltipla experiência doméstica, eis o desafio de Dolores. Ela sabia que a audição, o tato, o olfato e o paladar, embora auxílios valiosos para os cegos, Não são compensação sensorial para quem perde a visão. O cego não é dotado de capacidades invulgares nem possui memória extraordinária. O que é simples condicionamento para as pessoas videntes, significa árdua conguista para o cego.

    Também vocacionada para o magistério, Dolores resolveu dedicar a vida ao ensino de música para os cegos, a fazer com que eles possam fazer e impregnar-se da mais belas das artes, aquela que não conhece barreiras de idiomas e que, para muita gente boa, é a forma como Deus se comunica com os homens.

    Fundadora do Clube do Choro e uma das flautistas mais requisitadas da cidade, Dolores é professora da Escola de Música de Brasília, onda coordena o ensino de musicografia braille para alunos cegos. Enfrentou dificuldades e incompreensões, mas conseguiu afirmar-se nesse campo tão difícil, reservado a pessoas de espírito verdadeiramente superior e generoso.

    Alimenta-se de música e se comove com as vitórias de seus alunos. Afinal ela lhes transmite paz e luz através da música. Ao conhecê-la, fica uma certeza: como seria maravilhosa a multiplicação de dolores tomés por este mundo insensato!l" (Dolores Tomé | Musicografia Braille)


    Imperdível! | Dançar com a Diferença

    Contributo da música no desempenho de atletas

    Imagem: "Can music help elite athletes excel?" (Spikes)

    "Mais de sete mil corredores de uma meia-maratona que ocorreu em Londres, no Reino Unido, no início de outubro, estavam sob o efeito de um poderoso estimulante para aumentar a performance: a música pop. Pesquisadores identificaram que algumas trilhas sonoras podem ser até mais poderosas e eficientes para o desempenho de atletas do que substâncias ilegais que são encontradas com freqüência em exames antidoping.

    Segundo Costas Karageorghis, consultor de psicologia do esporte da Universidade de Brunel, na Inglaterra, e autor da pesquisa, para avaliar os competidores, uma canção foi tocada eventualmente durante o percurso de 20 km por 17 vezes. Quando a intensidade física começa a diminuir é o momento em que os efeitos se tornam mais eficazes, de acordo com o especialista. Por isso, os participantes não escutaram a canção constantemente.

    Em entrevistas ao final da corrida, os competidores consideraram o procedimento muito divertido e inspirador. Apesar da forte chuva e do vento, Karageorghis identificou que a música traz uma motivação extra aos atletas, mesmo que alguns não esteja participando do evento de forma coesa. "A necessidade psicológica de obter algo satisfatório estimulou os competidores a criar um elo comum com a meia-maratona", considera.

    O pesquisador constatou ainda que a música também é uma ótima maneira de regular o humor, tanto antes como durante as atividades físicas. "Muitos atletas se apegam à música como se fosse uma droga lícita, utilizando-a como estimulante ou sedativo. A excitação também pode se reduzir no caso de se ouvir uma canção mais lenta", afirma.

    A relação com o desempenho atlético é apenas um exemplo dos avanços médicos que os cientistas buscam analisar para compreender melhor o incrível poder da música sobre a mente e o corpo. Eles acreditam que essa força é capaz de acabar com dores, reduzir o estresse e aumentar a capacidade cerebral das pessoas.

    Redução de estresse

    Cada vez mais profissionais da saúde, incluindo a pediatra Linda Fisher, do centro hospitalar da Universidade de Loyola, em Illinois, nos Estados Unidos, utilizam músicas terapêuticas para tratar pacientes em hospitais, hospícios e outras unidades hospitalares.

    Linda Fisher explica que as canções tocadas não necessariamente já são familiarizadas com os enfermos. "A música tem um poder de cicatrização capaz de colocar a pessoa em um estado de tranqüilidade, controlado pelo ritmo e qualidade dos tons que compõem a melodia", avalia.

    Estudos realizados no início da década de 1990, no Bryan Memorial Hospital, em Nebraska, e St. Mary's Hospital, no Wisconsin, concluíram que o hábito reduz significativamente a freqüência cardíaca e controla a pressão arterial e a velocidade respiratória de pacientes submetidos à cirurgias.

    Em 2007, uma pesquisa na Alemanha indicou que a musicoterapia ajudou a melhorar as habilidades motoras de pacientes que se recuperavam de acidentes vasculares cerebrais. Entre outros efeitos encontrados, o tratamento também pode impulsionar o sistema imunológico, melhorar o foco mental, ajudar a controlar a dor, criar uma sensação de bem-estar e reduzir a ansiedade de pacientes que aguardavam cirurgia.

    Em outro estudo recente da escola de enfermagem da Kaohsiung Medical University, em Taiwan, a musicoterapia reduziu a tensão psicológica de grávidas após uma avaliação com 236 mulheres. A pesquisadora Chen Chung-Ei informou que as grávidas apresentaram significativas reduções de estresse, ansiedade e depressão depois de ouviram diariamente durante 30 minutos CDs com músicas infantis, da natureza e de compositores como Beethoven e Debussy. Os resultados foram divulgados no jornal científico Journal of Clinical Nursing.

    Música e exercícios

    Costas Karageorghis explicou os efeitos da música quando se está praticando atividade física em um ginásio. Primeiro, ela reduz a percepção em cerca de 10% de como a pessoa está se saindo durante a baixa intensidade da atividade. No caso de alta atividade, a música não funciona tão bem porque o cérebro fez com que se preste atenção aos sinais de estresse fisiológico.

    Em segundo lugar, a música pode influenciar o humor, elevando potencialmente os seus aspectos positivos, como a energia, entusiasmo e felicidade, e reduzindo a depressão, tensão, fadiga, raiva e confusão.

    Em terceiro lugar, a música pode ser usada para definir o ritmo do indivíduo, como no caso do etíope Haile Gebrselassie, que escuta a canção tecno "Scatman" nas competições - o atleta conquistou o ouro nos 10 mil metros dos Jogos Olímpicos de Sidney, em 2000. O último efeito, segundo Karageorghis, é o de que a musicalidade pode superar o cansaço e controlar a emoção durante uma competição." (iParaiba | Notícias online | 18/10/2008)

    Items for Author "Karageorghis, C I"


    Acho deplorável ... mas quem é a WMG e qual foi a grande violação?

    "An inspiring documentary about the life of a disabled child who has Cerebral Palsy and Epilepsy (17yrs old)."
    AVISO: Este vídeo contém uma faixa de áudio que não foi autorizada por WMG. O áudio foi desativado. Mais informações sobre direitos autorais

    Acho deplorável ... mas quem é a WMG e qual foi a grande violação?

    13º Simpósio Brasileiro de Musicoterapia

    XIII Simpósio
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    Saúde Pública - Inserção da Musicoterapia
    programa completo ...

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